囊谦| 三门| 维西| 茂名| 枞阳| 邻水| 抚松| 通州| 大化| 麟游| 乐至| 和顺| 太谷| 康县| 平邑| 绥滨| 尉氏| 龙胜| 梁河| 遵化| 泰州| 广昌| 昌邑| 张家川| 扎囊| 略阳| 商洛| 北仑| 上街| 苏尼特左旗| 石棉| 乌兰察布| 高要| 灵武| 梅河口| 宣汉| 长春| 广水| 盈江| 长岛| 上饶县| 门头沟| 米泉| 安西| 白云| 新宁| 荣成| 福州| 马鞍山| 阜平| 永和| 长白山| 宁晋| 衢州| 阿坝| 金阳| 射洪| 西林| 武宣| 青铜峡| 洞头| 抚宁| 海盐| 黄石| 独山子| 广汉| 绥滨| 金湖| 贵德| 潼南| 峨边| 乌恰| 定远| 兴宁| 高邮| 九龙| 青阳| 原阳| 道真| 滑县| 泾阳| 连云港| 肃南| 梅县| 林口| 福山| 新泰| 泰兴| 黄石| 西充| 兰州| 巢湖| 曲阳| 淮阳| 天山天池| 德令哈| 通河| 建德| 玉田| 黄岩| 望奎| 吴中| 镇平| 霸州| 昌宁| 大渡口| 淮阴| 格尔木| 沁阳| 惠民| 行唐| 安西| 香河| 上海| 吉林| 砚山| 鄄城| 乌拉特前旗| 松江| 惠来| 天峨| 涿鹿| 连江| 南海镇| 宜川| 浙江| 峰峰矿| 青白江| 巴青| 巴林左旗| 横峰| 夹江| 东方| 洞口| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 砚山| 隆林| 崇仁| 盱眙| 曲阳| 菏泽| 威县| 红古| 泗水| 安国| 昆山| 祁连| 荣昌| 双阳| 彰武| 长兴| 黄骅| 寒亭| 巨野| 邻水| 化州| 安康| 颍上| 青岛| 赫章| 当涂| 天门| 揭西| 修武| 景洪| 乌拉特前旗| 浠水| 汾阳| 南芬| 新余| 克拉玛依| 陈巴尔虎旗| 修文| 伊川| 汾西| 廉江| 会理| 定日| 衡阳县| 宽城| 井陉| 金佛山| 富县| 丰南| 西昌| 彭山| 金川| 伊通| 理县| 高雄市| 五河| 华坪| 什邡| 阜新市| 武城| 儋州| 错那| 呼玛| 临城| 宁陕| 太原| 张掖| 郁南| 永仁| 中阳| 乌海| 覃塘| 芒康| 达孜| 阿瓦提| 翁源| 库车| 襄樊| 定陶| 平顺| 昭觉| 米林| 阿图什| 绥德| 巴楚| 洪雅| 鹤庆| 科尔沁左翼后旗| 赣榆| 花垣| 长安| 昌图| 新乐| 新平| 碾子山| 荣昌| 澧县| 北戴河| 召陵| 神池| 鸡东| 夏县| 德庆| 科尔沁左翼后旗| 京山| 彝良| 兰州| 太康| 鄢陵| 广州| 涞水| 清水河| 新沂| 印江| 丹东| 德昌| 昌图| 沂水| 中山| 遂川| 华蓥| 资溪| 电白| 龙胜| 旅顺口| 龙陵| 沧县| 葫芦岛|

这部刚刚通过的法律不一般 一起来了解下

2019-09-23 04:54 来源:有问必答网

  这部刚刚通过的法律不一般 一起来了解下

  Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Stunningaerialshotsofmountains,grasslandsanddesertsinNorthwestChinasQinghaiProvince.(Photo/ChinaDaily)KirbyChamblissoftheUnitedStatesfliesduringahotairballoonraceinPhoenix,Arizona,,June5,2018,winneroftheUSNationalAerobaticChampionshipandaformerMen’sFreestyleWorldChampion.(Photo/VCG)KirbyChamblissoftheUnitedStatesfliesduringahotairballoonraceinPhoenix,Arizona,,June5,2018,winneroftheUSNationalAerobaticChampionshipandaformerMen’sFreestyleWorldChampion.(Photo/VCG)KirbyChamblissoftheUnitedStatesfliesduringahotairballoonraceinPhoenix,Arizona,,June5,2018,winneroftheUSNationalAerobaticChampionshipandaformerMen’sFreestyleWorldChampion.(Photo/VCG)

CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofTuandaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoPortinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay7,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoSportsCenterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonMay13,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofMaidaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofOlympicSailingCenter,whichusedtobeashipyard,inQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)KostasMoukas(back),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)

  BoostedbytheemergingmiddleclassinChina,internationalmid-,Chinahad2,342mid-endhotels,,808,,,thelargestamongsuchhotels,orInterContinentalHotelsGroupstable,oneoftheworld,000hotelsinChinaby2025,drivenmoskfast,,vice-presidentofHolidayInnExpress,saidthebrandisgoingtoexpandinlower-tiercitiesthroughfranchises."Manyofourexistinghotelsinthird-andfourth-tiercitieshavereceivedpositivereviews,",,suchfranchisedealsseeIHGappointingahotelsgeneralmanagerandprovidingfranchiseesupportonperformancemanagement,riskmanagement,sales,,IHGhasawebsite,a,000merchandisesforallHolidayInnhotels,,IHGoffersaone-stopservicetosdevelopmentteammanagestheHolidayInnExpressbrandandconsidersacitysGDP,thenumberofvisitors,andlocalindustriesandtourismsites,,chairmanofBeijingXinrongjinHotelManagementCoLtd,whichownsthreeHolidayInnExpresshotelsinBeijing,saidthefranchisedealswithIHGhavehelpedearnarevenueof141millionyuan($)andmorethan60millionyuaninnetprofitlastyear."ThecombinednetprofitfromthethreeHolidayInnExpresshotelsismuchhigherthanthatofmanyfive-starhotels,",safetymanagementandriskcontrolarekeycontributorstothegrowthofthemid-endhotels,umptionupgrade,hesaid."Forpropertyowners,themedium-rangehotelsofferbestturnover."  FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)

  ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Dancersperformduringalightshowandfireworksdisplayheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Dancersperformduringalightshowandfireworksdisplayheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhangYong)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhangYong)

ChinaHangzhouTourismInternationalPromotionConferencewasheldinChicagoonMonday,withtheattendanceofover100governme,theiconiccitylocatedineastChina,isamixtureoflongChinesehistoryandculture,attractivelandscapeandmoderncity,ChineseConsulGeneralinChicagoHongLeisaid,addressingtheevent."WelcometoHangzhou,andIbelieveyouwillenjoyyourselvessomuchastoforgettogoback,",,,andtourismundoubtedlyservesasabridgetoboostbilateralunderstanding,headded."Ihopepeople-to-peopleexchangeofthiskindcouldgostronger,buildingabetterandmoreprosperousfutureforbilateralrelations,",visitingdeputymayorofHangzhou,saidthatHangzhou,whichisactivelypromotingbusinesscooperationworldwide,is"willingtostrengthencooperationwiththecityofChicagointhefieldsoftourism,culture,tradeandeconomy."DavidWhitaker,presidentandCEOofChooseChicago,thecitystourismmarketingarm,sfastestgrowingtouristsourcemarket,hesaid."CityofChicagovaluesthegreatpotentialoftheChinesemarket,sowewelcomemoreChinesetouriststoChicago."

  AppleCEOTimCooktakesthestageduringApplesWorldwideDeveloperConference(WWDC)attheSanJoseConventionCenterinSanJose,California,theUnitedStates,June4,2018.(Xinhua)AparticipanttakesphotosduringApplesWorldwideDeveloperConference(WWDC)attheSanJoseConventionCenterinSanJose,California,theUnitedStates,June4,2018.(Xinhua)AppleCEOTimCooktakesthestageduringApplesWorldwideDeveloperConference(WWDC)attheSanJoseConventionCenterinSanJose,California,theUnitedStates,June4,2018.(Xinhua)TheApplesWorldwideDeveloperConference(WWDC)isheldattheSanJoseConventionCenterinSanJose,California,theUnitedStates,June4,2018.(Xinhua)TheApplesWorldwideDeveloperConference(WWDC)isheldattheSanJoseConventionCenterinSanJose,California,theUnitedStates,June4,2018.(Photo/Xinhua)

  AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)MaritimepersonneluseadronetopatrolontheHongzeLakeinHuaianofeastChinasJiangsuProvince,May15,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ChenLiang)AnagriculturaldroneworksinthefieldsinBeiguanVillage,LinzhangTownshipofnorthChinasHebeiProvince,April19,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/HuGaolei)AnagriculturaldronespraysintherapeseedfieldsinGulingVillage,JiujiangofeastChinasJiangxiProvince,March21,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/FuJianbin)Adronedeliversvegetablefromamodernagriculturalparktoane-commercewarehouseinWugongCountyofnorthwestChinasShaanxiProvince,April22,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/LiYibo)Arescuedronecapableofbroadcastingandissuingwarnings,patrolsaboveabeachareainSanyaofsouthChinasHainanProvince,May30,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ShaXiaofeng)Visitorswatchademonstrationofadronetakingpicturesduringthe20thChinaBeijingInternationalHigh-techExpo,inBeijing,capitalofChina,June8,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/JuHuanzong)AfarmeroperatesadroneforfarmworkinthefieldsinZiboofeastChinasShandongProvince,March14,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/CuiLilai)

  All-inclusiveholiday-packageproviderClubMedlauncheditsfirstJoyviewresortinHebeiprovincesalsodifferentfromotherClubMedsinthatit,itsfastest-growingmarket,ClubMedpresidentHenriGiscarddEstaingsays."Asall-inclusiveisnotyetsowellknowninChina,itgivesanopportunityforalargenumberofpotentialcustomerstotryanduseClubMed,"ddrivefrommajorcities,dEstaingsaysth,softarchery,anOmnisportcourt,sailing,,,Hebeiprovince,offersavarietyofentertainmentfacilitiesincludingsoftarchery,anOmnisportcourt,sailing,windsurfingandhorseriding.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)MiniClubMedfeaturesakidsbidcircuit,hostweddings,,000ChinesevisitedClubMedfacilitiesworldwidelastyear,sAnjiandnearHebeisGreatWallthisyear.

  KostasMoukas(back),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)KostasMoukas(front),adisabledWushuteacher,teachesinhiswheelchair,inAthens,Greece,June5,fficiallyinthenationalchampionships.(Xinhua/PanagiotisMoschandreou)LeonardoDaVinci’ssketchTheKnightonshowattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,June5,rtistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelo.(Photo/)Theexhibitionof250itemsincludingworksbythreeofthegreatmasterartistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelowillopenattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvinceonJune8,’spaintingMonaLisamadebyoneofhisfollowersisonshowattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,June5,rtistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelo.(Photo/)Theexhibitionof250itemsincludingworksbythreeofthegreatmasterartistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelowillopenattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvinceonJune8,2018.

  ChildrenplayonasquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)StudentsofamiddleschoolplayfootballinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmangoeswindsurferinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,May4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)CitizensposeforphotoattheOlympicParkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)ChildrenpracticerollerskatinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmandoesexercisesataparkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AsailboatisseeninthewaterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)

  AdronephotoshowstheBalingRiverBridgeoveravalleyinGuanlingCounty,SouthwestChina’sGuizhouProvince,June5,,the1,564-meter-longsuspensionbr,088meters.(Photo/IC)AdronephotoshowstheBalingRiverBridgeoveravalleyinGuanlingCounty,SouthwestChina’sGuizhouProvince,June5,,the1,564-meter-longsuspensionbr,088meters.(Photo/IC)AdronephotoshowstheBalingRiverBridgeoveravalleyinGuanlingCounty,SouthwestChina’sGuizhouProvince,June5,,the1,564-meter-longsuspensionbr,088meters.(Photo/IC)

  TeachersencourageexamineesatanexamvenueinGuiyang,capitalofsouthwestChinasGuizhouProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/TaoLiang)ExamineeswaittoenteranexamvenueatLhasaMiddleSchoolinLhasa,capitalofsouthwestChinasTibetAutonomousRegion,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LiuDongjun)AteacherdistributesIDcardsandstationerytoexamineesatanexamvenueinChengdu,capitalofsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/JiangHongjing),capitalofeastChinasAnhuiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ZhangDuan)AstaffmemberchecksthecredentialsofexamineesatanexamvenueinBeijing,capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LuoXiaoguang)AnexamineeclapshandswithherteacherbeforeenteringanexamvenueinXian,capitalofnorthwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ZhangBowen)ExamineesenteranexamvenueatHainanMiddleSchoolinHaikou,capitalofsouthChinasHainanProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/GuoCheng)AstudentencouragesexamineesatanexamvenueinBeijing,capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)ExamineestakeaselfiewiththeirfamilybeforethenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsideanexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),eastChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/XuXiaoxuan)ExamineesprepareforthenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsidetheexamvenueatFenyangHighSchoolinLyuliangCity,northChinasShanxiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/CaoYang)ExamineesenteranexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)

  

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宋朝人已经开始读报纸:民间“媒体”竟敢伪造诏书

AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)


来源:我们都爱宋朝

今天的新闻史著作通常将十七世纪才出现的《法兰克福邮政总局报》或者《新到新闻》、《莱比锡新闻》当成世界上最早的日报。但以南宋小报出现的特征来看,我们完全有理由说,风行于十二世纪的南宋小报才是世界最早的日报,而且其品质跟近代新闻报纸已经相当接近。

(仇英版《清明上河图》上的书店)

一个生活在宋朝的知识分子,如果他关心时政,他可以每天都市场上买一张报纸,上面通常刊登有最近的政治新闻与社会奇闻。

至迟从北宋末开始,汴梁市场上已出现商品化的报纸,《靖康要录》载:“凌晨有卖朝报者。”这里的“朝报”显然不是官方出版的邸报,因为邸报是免费发给政府机关的报纸,不会进入市场。报贩子叫卖的“朝报”实际上应该是民间雕印与发行的“小报”,只不过假托“朝报”(机关报)之名而已。

南宋时临安城有了专门的报摊,《西湖老人繁胜录》与《武林旧事》记录的杭州各类小本买卖中,都有“卖朝报”一项,可见报纸零售已成为一种可以养家糊口的职业,它的背后,肯定又隐藏着一个靠出版报纸营利的行业。

那么南宋的新闻小报究竟是一种怎么样的报纸?一份宋光宗绍熙四年(1193)的臣僚奏疏透露了比较详细的信息:

“近年有所谓‘小报’者,或是朝报未报之事,或是官员陈乞未曾施行之事,先传于外,固已不可。至有撰造命令,妄传事端,朝廷之差除,台谏百官之章奏,以无为有,传播于外。访闻有一使臣及合门院子,专以探报此等事为生。或得于省院之漏泄,或得于街市之剽闻,又或意见之撰造,日书一纸,以出局之后,省部、寺监、知杂司及进奏官悉皆传授,坐获不赀之利,以先得者为功。一以传十,十以传百,以至遍达于州郡监司。人情喜新而好奇,皆以小报为先,而以朝报为常,真伪亦不复辨也。”(《宋会要辑稿•刑法》)

研究新闻史的台湾学者朱传誉先生根据这条史料,推断出南宋小报具有如下特征:

一、有人“专以探报此等事为生”,也就是说,已经专业化。

二、“坐获不赀之利”,可见是商业行为,并且是一种很赚钱的事业。

三、新闻来源“或得之于省院之漏泄,或得于街市之剽闻”,可知范围很广,并不限于宫禁,道听途说也在采访之列。

四、内容如诏令、差除、台谏百官章奏,多为朝报所未报,因而被称为“新闻”(友情提示:宋朝人已经用“新闻”一词来指称民间小报了)。

五、“人情喜新而好奇,皆以小报为先,而以朝报为常”,可知小报较朝报受人欢迎。

六、“一以传十,十以传百,以至遍达于州郡监司”,可见发行之广。

七、所谓“撰造命令”、“又或意见之撰造”,也就是言论栏,相当于今日报纸的社论。

除了上面朱传誉先生提出来的这七点,我们还可以根据另外的史料,将南宋小报的特征补充完整:

八、小报养有一批采访消息的“报料人”、“记者”,据《朝野类要》载,“有所谓内探、省探、衙探之类,皆衷私小报,率有漏泄之禁,故隐而号之曰‘新闻’。”这里的“内探”、“省探”、“衙探”都是暗中服务于小报的报料人,他们为小报老板提供新闻,当然也从小报老板那里获取报酬。

九、小报为定期出版,“日书一纸”投于市场,发行覆盖面达于州郡,这样的报纸肯定不是手抄报,而是印刷品。宋代印刷业非常发达,印制小报在技术上完全没有问题,其实早在北宋熙宁年间,市井中就有人刊印时政新闻卖钱:“窃闻近日有奸妄小人肆毁时政,摇动众情,传惑天下,至有矫撰敕文,印卖都市。”(《宋会要辑稿•刑法》)

十、小报为民间所办,新闻采写与发行传播均摆脱了官方控制,一些小报胆大妄为的程度可能超乎我们的想象,如北宋大观四年(1110),有小报刊登了一份宋徽宗斥责蔡京的诏书,但这份诏书是小报杜撰出来的,属于伪诏,放在其他王朝,这无疑是诛九族的大罪,但在北宋末,这起“辄伪撰诏”事件最后却不了了之。

南宋初,又有小报伪造、散布宋高宗的诏书,令高宗非常尴尬,不得不出面澄清。当然宋政府也一再发布法令,企图“严行约束”小报,但总是屡禁不止,从中也可以想见宋政府对于社会的控制力并不严厉。

(清代的京报)

今天的新闻史著作通常将十七世纪才出现的《法兰克福邮政总局报》或者《新到新闻》、《莱比锡新闻》当成世界上最早的日报。但以南宋小报出现的特征来看,我们完全有理由说,风行于十二世纪的南宋小报才是世界最早的日报,而且其品质跟近代新闻报纸已经相当接近。

指出这一点,并不是为了满足“我们祖上曾阔过”的虚荣,我只是想说明:华夏文明有自发近代化的内在动力。

*节选自吴钩《宋:现代的拂晓时辰》一书。

[责任编辑:李志明 PN032]

责任编辑:李志明 PN032

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